This research would base on the detailed investigations and steps taken by both countries to build confidence and trust to meet their conflicts and reducing uncertainty and promoting peace. This research will also point out the achievement of confidence building measures which has made possible both sides to start talks to meet the bilateral issues of both sides. The study will examine the importance of CBMs to reduce high tension between India and Pakistan which has made the south Asian region regional peace in danger. The study has also examined the academic work to realize the importance of good relations between the two neighboring nations having the long common border and mutual disputes since independence.
Conflicts, High tension, Distrust, CBMs, Negotiation, Agreements Peace.
Significance of the Study
In the south Asian zone, the two atomic powers have made the region complex and uncertain as both have the history of the relations packed with conflicted disputes soon after the partition. Since 1947 it was observed that nations remained in the conditions of distrust and conventional wars of 1948, 1965 and 1971 which has added more distrust in the relations between both sides. Indian supersized the world with atomic tests of May 1998. Pakistan policy makers examined these atomic blasts as challenge for the security. Pakistan replied India in the same manner by testing her atomic tests after some days of Indian atomic blasts. Moreover, the Kargil conflict added more distrust and serious concerns to the regional security and threats to international peace.
Need for the Project
In the age of globalization political science is the most important research-based discipline; analyses the political system, decisions, events and relations with the other states. India-Pakistan relations spanning more than six decades have been characterized by mutual distrust. Confidence building measures play a significant role in conflicts resolution. The approach to establish composite dialogue process on solid ground is need of the hour. Many attempts were viewed to find out the instant solutions of ongoing resolvable complex problems, but such efforts were derailed either by non-states actors or even lack of political will. Political economic and military CBMs generate the lifeline to efforts to bring peace in confrontational situation. Deep commitment of the leadership caused a lot to achieve the benefits of CBMs which are often designed between India and Pakistan to address the conflicted issues by the peace process. Dialogue process between India Pakistan has not yet resulted in resolving the core issues like Kashmir, Cross-border terrorism, Sir Creek and Siachen. Indian and Pakistani top leadership dramatic poses and statements are observed just like the symbolic gestures which are is not enough to address the core issues. This is established a fact that mutual relations between India and Pakistan always remained complex and on bumpy routes. Limited people to people interaction are observed that may have contributed to build navigate perceptions the minds of Indian and Pakistani nationals for one another.
This research will be helpful to provide the research-based data to realizing the facts and issues of peace and security in the region and bring the people closer. This research will be helpful to build trust and confidence to solve the different conflicts between India and Pakistan. This study will be helpful to the policy and decision-making parliamentarians, politicians and political actors of the state how to develop trust and confidence to manage the conflicts and make understanding and communication between the group of people and states having different ideas, views about problems and issues related to the state peace and security.
H1: Confidence building measures can help to reduce the uncertainty between India and Pakistan.
H2: Confidence building measures help India and Pakistan to have dialogues on different issues.
Objectives of the Study
The main focus of the study will provide the information about how to develop good relations of two nuclear powers India and Pakistan that have issues and problems since 1947 and steps taken by the states for confidence building measures, the achievement and failures. This study will also provide the information about the basic conflicts of India and Pakistan and the concerns and politics of big countries of the world such as US, Russia and China. By comparing and analyzing the confidence building measures the researcher would suggest recommendations that can improve relations between India and Pakistan and to solve the issues.
In this study the research process will be completed, and data will be collected through the primary and secondary sources. Different official surveys, books written on the relations of Indo-Pak, newspapers, research papers, journal related to the India Pakistan conflicted issues, articles about the importance of confidence building measures, documents, interviews of policy makers of both sides and other available material including official record will also be consulted. The research work will be descriptive and analytical under the framework political system theory. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques will be applied in the research.
Conflict management or staring the negotiation is deeply associated with creating the atmosphere of trust and it can only be developed through the different CBMs taken by nations to reduce the volume of distrust. Peace processes require best skills of negotiation during the conditions of high rick between nations (Zartman, 2007).
To understand concept of Confidence Building Measures how the term Confidence Building Measures became the part of diplomatic language in the peace building process? A major development was viewed through a Conference held in Helsinki that finally resulted into Helsinki Act 1975. Basically, the act was related to some agreed steps by the 35 Nations of the Europe in including America and Canada. States agreed to exchange evidence, notification, observation and information for the major military movements and activities. It was all done to reduce tension and to overcome miscalculation that shaped into armed conflicts (Desjardins 2014). In 1983 the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) held in Madrid with the objectives to deal certain military concerns and risks of miss-interpretation that caused the surprise military attacks. The Conference was the follow up of Helsinki assembling. Discussion was made to create measures on disarmament in Europe. Conducting Document of the Conference caught the term Security Building Measures as separate part of CBMs (Capie & Evans, 2002).
Confidence Building Measures are the significant tool to reduce the high stress and possibilities wars between the nations and mostly nations adopted the CBMs to reduce the complex situation or threats of war. Under the confusing conditions and security threats leaders of the nation’s adopt confidence measures to gain the better environment for talks (Krepon, 1999).
The South Asia became more conflicted, and US showed her deep concerns over the atomic blasts of both India and Pakistan which has converted the south Asian region in atomic war zone. Being the neighbors the issues between Pakistan and India has added arms race. American have a great concern for complex situation of security and stressed the both sides to generate confidence building measures to avoid atomic combat. (Haaseen & Halperin, 1998). CBMs in South Asia between the both India and Pakistan has played its role to defuse the tension. The use of confidence building measures and the strategies adopt by both nations have built the gaps by reducing the high security threats in the case of India and Pakistan. Different institutions working in south Asian has played its role to highlight the importance of CBMs between Pak-India (Ahmar, 2001).
Ghosh narrated the major achievements and failures while discussing the importance of CBMs occurred in Pak-India and stressed that both sides should avoid the used the CBMs as political tool establishing the point scoring. Military and political CBMs must be only for peace promotion and addressing the core problems in bilateral talks. CBMs must be adopted in all three directions short term, midterm and long and it should be taken as continuing process. He stressed that policy makers should worst consequences of war (Ghosh, 2009)
India and Pakistan being the atomic powers in South Asia are counted internationally a serious threat to the peace and security of the region. The rivalry of both nations has transformed security on high rick. Conventional wars in both countries of 1948, 1965 and the war of 1971 which has separated the East part of the Pakistan added more concerns for the survival of the Pakistani policy makers. May 1998 atomic tests has replaced the south Asia into atomic armed race. The nuclear program and gaining more and more capabilities have pushed the region in dangerous war zone. Kargil misadventure after being atomic power has created deep concerns to the international key players and peace builders. There is dare need to build trust and reduce misunderstanding through the CBMs (Busch, 2004). India Pakistan rivalry has affected every dimension of relations such as people to people contract and it began soon after the independence. Unsolved disputes has created gaps in every filed of life in both sides as both nations has put their energies and capital to enhance advance security measures. Conflicts between both sides has played its role to create the gaps and distrust (Paul, 2005). Nuclear tests of May 1998, terrorist attempts in different period both sides the Indo-Pak border and concerns of the security condition had established the gaps in the relations and unfortunately political will and self-oriented political has make it complex (Datta, 2010).
Historical Glance of CBMs between India and Pakistan
CBMs is a set of actions and activities or positive actions packed with different techniques and skill to defuse
the high rick of uncertainty when two states are in an aggressive position and rick of war has been increased. CBMs play its role to defuse the situation of aggression.
By analyzing the history of sub-continent, it was observed that freedom movement against the British Empire harvested the division of subcontinent into the two parts. The freedom movement was empowered through the ideology of Two-Nation theory that Hindus and Muslims are completely two different schools of thought and never live together. In the month August 1947 Pakistan and India got independence and placed themselves on the map of the world as an independent States. Soon after the independence the relations of both newly born States were locked in distrust because of conflicted issues. The main dispute that had created confrontation between both countries is a Kashmir Issue (Jauhari 2013).
In April 1950 Prime Minister of Pakistan Liaquat Ali and Prime Minister of India Nehru Mutually developed Liquat-Nehru Pact. On water crisis, President of Pakistan, Ayub Khan and Indian Prime Minister, Jawahar Lal Nehru arranged a sitting in September 1960, which resulted into the agreement of Indus Basis treaty. In December 1960 and May 1963, Foreign Minister of Pakistan, Z.A. Bhutto met to Foreign Minister of India, Sadar Swaran Singh and discussed the Kashmir Issue. The famous Tashkent Settlement was the result of the negotiation process between President Ayub Khan and Prime Minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri. This sitting was held in January 1966.After the war of 1971 Prime Minister of Pakistan, Z.A Bhutto met Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in Simla, August 1972 and reaped famous Simla Agreement (Javaid & Kamal, 2013). The history of CBMs between India, Pakistan is not much remarkable. But efforts were made by both sides in some areas which developed trust. Both countries agreed in Simla Accord on non-use of force and disputes were resolved through bilateral talks in 1972. Historical evidence showed that after combat of 1971 military hot line was developed in both countries between Directors General of Military Operations (DGMOs) in 1990. In 1999, Both Nations agreed to upgrade this hot line in Lahore declaration. First hotline was recognized in 1987 between Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and Rajiv Gandhi. It was reestablished by Indian Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar and Nawaz Sharif in November 1990 to gain direct communication. An agreement was developed in 1991 that information would be exchanged before military exercises and limited distance specified 45 Km away from international border. It is also agreed not to use 5 Kilometers area for any kind of armed exercise along the border. Not to violate the air space agreement was made in 1991 and was enforced in 1992. PM of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto and her counterpart Rajiv Gandhi singed accord in December 1988 during SAARC Summit not to attach against nuclear installations and was ratified in 1991 and enforced in January 1992. Chemical weapons bilateral pact was organized in 1992 as both States agreed not to breed and develop chemical weapons. (Noor 2012)
Rules and regulation were also set for the protection of personnel’s who paying duties at diplomatic level in both countries as both sides diplomatic staff have often been harassed. Some non-military CBMs were viewed that have contributed to peace process such as in 1999 bus service between Delhi-Lahore was started, stopped after Kagil war and was again restarted in 2003. Railway facilities between Attari and Lahore and air linkages were restarted in 2004. Between Lahore and Delhi Samjhauta Express service resumed in 2005 and continued despite of 2007 blasts. Inaugural of bus service was viewed in 2005 between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad. Pakistan accepted humanitarian aid in 2005 aftermath of earthquake in terms of medicine and food. In 2006 bus services was organized between Lahore to Amritsar, and Nankana Sahib and Amritsar and in the same year train linkages were developed in Munnabao and Khokhrapar. Anti-terrorism mechanism was brought into effect in 2006. For trade dealing first truck route opened at Wagah border in 2007. Weekly flights were increased from 12 to 28 to improve air linkages. In 2008 the trade channels were increased through Wagah-Attari, in Punjab, Srinagar-Muzaffarabad and Rawalakot-Poonch in Kashmir. To develop the communication at academic level an agreement was made between Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad and Institute of Defence Studies and Analyses New Delhi in 2008. More than 500 hundred prisoners have been released from jails of both countries during the period of 2003 to 2009 by the common Judicial Committee that was established in 2008 with the objective of welfare of the prisoners which were in the jails of both countries. Releasing of Indian movies in Pakistani film industries was granted permission in 2008 by Government of Pakistan. (Najmudheen & kausar, 2013).
Saman Zaulfqar in his study analyzed the CBMs aims and objectives. Different agreements between India and Pakistan such as Liaquat Nehru pact (1951), Indus water treaty (1966), Tashkent agreement (1966), the Rann of Kutch agreement (1966) and the Simla accord (1971) has brought both nations closer. Mutual commutation measures has established the link between the decision makers of both states. CBMs between India and Pakistan such as military, atmospheric and economic CBMs has ultimate cool down the heat between both. Cold war between Soviet Union and United States was different from the nuclear rivalry between India and Pakistan. It is observed in Indo-Pak case that most of the CBMs proposals have been designed to capture the political high ground and not to solve the problems (Zaulfqar, 2013)
History of CBMs in south is not impressive as there were a number of limitations over CBMs. Importance of international relations and effects globalization that brought the world closer but complex for the interest of the countries. India Pakistan relations were marred by problems that attributed to historical, civilization, tropical, governance and diplomatic differences which are responsible for converting south Asia into most complex, volatile and political explosive region and threat to world peace and security. CBMs between India and Pakistan such as the establishment of military hotlines in 1971, hot line between prime minister in 1987, agreements on non-use of force 1988, military exercise in 1991, and non-violation of air space, prohibition attack against nuclear faculties and bilateral accord on chemical weapon has brought both nations closer and interconnected with each other.
Historical reviewed narrated that Confidence building measures has played its role during and before the high rick of aggression and to strength the regionalism avoiding the war. It is observed that in 1985 during the formation of SAARC President Zia-Ul-Haq and the Indian Prime minister Rajiv were together and created measures of trust. The establishment process of the organization has given the opportunities of both sides to sit on common table to set the common objectives to enhance regional propensity. Cricket diplomacy by Zia-Ul-Haq was introduced to promote peace through games in 1987. It is also observed that during the period of 1986 to 1997 many official talks was arranged in the aftermath of creating confidence building measures between both countries. Through these formal talks the Kashmir issues, trade affairs and Sir Creek was discussed by both sides. Indian Prime Minister Visit to in December 1988 and meeting with the Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto had opened the discussion to address the mutual issues and promote the measures of cooperation different fields of life. The sideline meeting in 1997 in Male of Pakistani Prime minister Nawaz Sharif with his counter partner I.K Gujral was the result of CBMs taken by both sides to address the mutual issues. Confidence Building measures has played its role after the Nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan in May 1998, to reduce the high tension again Nawaz Sharif meet with the Indian Prime Minister AtalBehari Vajpayee and after that meet contribute towards the visit of Vajpayee in Lahore through “Dosti Bus Service” in February 1999. Pakistani President visited Indian city Agra in July 2001 is example of creating the atmosphere of trust and chances for dialogs to promoting the regional peace by addressing the core problem including Kashmir (Rizvi, 2011).
Nuclear Race and threats to Regional Peace
Nuclear race between India and Pakistan raised the serious questions marks over the regional stability and international peace. Both nations have pushed the south Asia into nuclear region and endless contention. The US based security observers and think tanks recommended the need of confidence building measures which would be helpful for both sides to think about the regional peace and starting dialogs over the issues which has develop the unrest in both states (Mishra, 2005).
New Delhi and Islamabad had to think about the control of arms and must be addressed with practical approach because the nuclear arms race which transformed into the missile arms having the capability to carry nuclear war head for long distance across the borders of both sides. It is serious threat to the peace and security in the region of south Asia because of conformation in Pak-India relations. Practical measures are needed to develop the joint shared arms control regime (Jaspal, 2005).
India as big country of South Asia has to improve her bilateral relations and understanding to create the atmosphere of cooperation. Regional agreements and trade accords with her neighbouring states is only possible in peaceful south Asia and measures taken in this connection would be helpful to uplift the stander of living of the south Asian nations (Trivedi, 2008).
Kashmir dispute between India Pakistan caused unrest and thrown both nations into three full scale conventional wars. Earlier under the umbrella of British regime the partition of Bengal and Punjab has pushed both sides into distrust. It is observed that the Hindus-Muslims controversy of ideology remained in same position after partition which added fire in the relations of both sides (Lyon Peter, 2008).
Extremism and Cross-Border Terrorism
Pakistan India after 1947 have been observed in never ending conflict over Kashmir. South Asia remained in the condition of threats of security as radical extremism has played their role to weaken both states. The assassination of Benazir in 2007 and attacks on Indian parliaments are the example terrorism and lacking political will of both sides. Extremism is tuned the region into dangerous part of the earth. The peace and conflict in the region of India and Pakistan is also associated with nuclear proliferation which has pushed both states into the spending of high cost of military expenditures. It has created poverty and militancy and the social sectors remained ignored (Chatterji, 2008).
Increasing radical extremism or Jihad factor and having second largest Muslim population with unbalanced regional security has raised concerns of the international world while attacks on Indian Parliament and Mumbai blasts has added more question marks over the future of Pakistan. Radical extremism, fundamentalism in some areas of Punjab and uneven relations with India has weaken the Pakistan internally and externally in the world politics. The increasing part of USA and China for their global interests changed the regional politics of South Asia (Cohen, 2011).
India Pakistan enduring rivals with the history for four war and the recent being having the status of nuclear states were near to fifth war in 2001. In spite of these tragic calculations there are many developments of cooperation between both countries which sometimes remained ignored and needed to be given value. The establishment of composite dialogue process in 1997 was the lesson learnt by the bad relations of both sides remained hostile (Misra, 2010).
Hand Shaking of President Musharraf in SAARC Conference 2002
Indian Prime Minister during the annual Conference of SAARC in 2002 received a hand of friendship by the Pakistani President Musharraf. It was examined that this good will gesture of Pakistani President has defuse the high rick of war between the India and Pakistan after the Kargil crisis which has created high security threats on both sides of the borders. Many ups and downs were observed during the Musharraf era in the relations of India and Pakistan. It is also examined that the talks of peace have put both countries dialog session. Many challenges were observed during peace making process during Musharraf regime (Katyal, 2006).
Revival of dialogs Process between India and Pakistan
In the SAARC summit hosted by the Islamabad in 2004 brought the revival of dialogue process as it was observed that President Musharraf and Vajpayee arranged a sideline meeting during the formal proceeding of regional association and agreed to restart the bilateral talks including the core issue of Kashmir. After the Mumbai attacks in 2008 the process of talks again postponed but it was also examined that PM Singh and PM Galini in 2010 decided to resume dialogue process (Rizvi, 2011).
South Asian Nuclear Powers and being neighbors has twisted with each other has long common borders. On the borders high security rick is always present due to the rivalry. It is examined that unsolved disputes have created the unrest and thrown the both nations into three full scale armed wars. Historical analysis of mutual relations of both sides has unfold that unfortunately there has huge gaps of misunderstanding that has created gaps and has established the lacking confidence and trust on each other. Kashmir as a core dispute between both nations is still unsolved agenda in the United Nations organization. India and Pakistan security problems such as cross border terrorism from both sides has added more strength to establish more distrust and gaps among the relations of both key players of the south Asian regions. Logically reasons behind the staring of armed weapons race is the mutual disputes. Unaddressed Kashmir Issue by international world has pushed both sides into nuclear armed race. India being a big country of the region wants to establish her hegemony in all field of regional politics of south Asia. Confidence building measures has played the role to reduce the distrust and high rick of war. During the SAARC conference in 2002 hand shaking by the president Musharraf has reduce the tension of war when both sides armed forces were on the front border and there was high rick of war between India and Pakistan. The Indian prime minister her speech pointed out the Musharraf hand of friendship and realized Pakistan authorities about Kargil conflict as wrong decision after the Dosti Bus visit and Lahore declaration between both countries. Regionalism in the age of globalization is gaining more and more strength. There is dare need that India and Pakistan must address their mutual misunderstanding being a responsible nuclear power of the region. Bilateral talks are the best way to meet the peace and prosperity in the region.
1. United Nation must play her role to address the core issues of Kashmir.
2. Kashmir issues must be addressed in peaceful manners as it has fetched the armed race between both sides.
3. Measures should be developed to prevent the conditions of distrust
4. Both sides should adopt the dialogs process instead of giving conflicted statement on each other.
5. Peace incentives should be admired by the international world instead of self-interested politics.
6. United Nations organization should play her key role to promote peace through the seminars and conferences.
7. People to people contracts in both sides should be promoted to address the hate and aggression among the people of both sides.
8. India and Pakistan decision makers of both sides should think seriously and should own responsibility and realization of war destruction being the representative of nuclear states.
9. Both countries should adopt such measures that the process of peace through talks should not be stopped or postponed in any condition